Wednesday, March 20, 2013
I was beaten by my ex-wife, both physically and emotionally.
After it started I stuck with her for four years thinking that I could make things OK again. I spent over £2,000 on marriage guidance counselling where the emphasis was on me changing my behaviour and my personality so that I could be "acceptable" to her. It was a given that as a man, I lacked emotional intelligence and she, as a woman, was emotionally superior. My self-esteem and my confidence suffered horrendously, which re-inforced their view that I was emotionally immature. The media, the marriage "guidance" business and society in general subscribes to the view that men are emotionally inferior and so, everywhere I looked for answers, her views were re-inforced. The case against me became so overwhelming that I began to believe it myself and I fell for the anti-male conspiracy (and that, I believe, is what it is). I questioned my very existence. At the lowest point I believed her when she said that I was clinically depressed, resulting in me being prescribed anti-depressants... (Source)
Sunday, September 9, 2012
(This is NOT a picture of me! Picture was from Wikipedia.)
Visceral fat (a.k.a. belly fat and love handles) is a response to an energy deprivation. Energy deprivation, such as a glucose deprivation, shifts the body to store fat rather than to utilize the energy. Visceral fat has been an adaptation to reduce starvation.
It's easy to gain and lose visceral fat. During starvation or fasting, the first place which fat is burned is in the abdominal area.
Why does visceral fat disappear so quickly? It is because it's intended to be stored as energy, 'rather like a squirrel hiding nuts'. says Dr Haslam. (Source)
The reverse is also true. Fat is easily gained in the abdominal area.
Evolutionarily, this makes sense. Animals who are susceptible to starvation tend to store visceral fat. This is in contrast to subcutaneous fat, which is to provide insulation. Unlike subcutaneous fat which is located everyone, abdominal fat is located in the abdominal area, which also happens to be the center of mass for the organism. Thus, an animal which stores fat in the abdominal area doesn't suffer from impaired mobility as if it stores the fat as subcutaneous fat.
Thus, it's plausible to hypothesize that preventing hypoglycemia (a state of energy deficiency) would reduce visceral fat.
A few simple ways could help to prevent hypoglycemia. There are many ways to regulate blood sugar, which include eliminating polyunsaturated fats (including eliminating fish oil) and supplementing with aspirin and niacinamide. Yet another one is blood donation. We will emphasize blood donation here.
First, there are a few controlled studies demonstrating that blood donation improves blood sugar levels.Low iron status and enhanced insulin sensitivity in lacto-ovo vegetarians Nancy W. Hua1,2, Riccardo A. Stoohs3 and Francesco S. Facchini1,2,3* 1Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA, USA
Blood Letting in High-Ferritin Type 2 Diabetes Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Cell Function Jose´ Manuel Ferna´ndez-Real,1 Georgina Pen˜ arroja,2 Antoni Castro,2 Fernando Garcı´a-Bragado,2 Ildefonso Herna´ndez-Aguado,3 and Wifredo Ricart1
To test whether or not Fe status might modulate insulin sensitivity, body Fe was lowered by phlebotomy in six male meat-eaters to levels similar to that seen in vegetarians, with a resultant approximately 40 % enhancement of insulin-mediated glucose disposal ðP ¼ 0:0008Þ:
Iron Depletion by Phlebotomy Improves Insulin Resistance in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Hyperferritinemia: Evidence from a Case-Control Study Luca Valenti, M.D.,1 Anna Ludovica Fracanzani, M.D.,1 Paola Dongiovanni, Ph.D.,1 Elisabetta Bugianesi, M.D.,2 Giulio Marchesini, M.D.,3 Paola Manzini, M.D.,4 Ester Vanni, M.D.,2 and Silvia Fargion, M.D.1
A statistically significant increase in insulin sensitivity was observed in the blood-letting group
Baseline ferritin levels were associated with body iron stores (P < 0.0001). Iron depletion produced a significantly larger decrease in insulin resistance (P = 0.0016 for insulin, P = 0.0042 for HOMA-R) compared with nutritional counseling alone, independent of changes in BMI, baseline HOMA-R, and the presence of the metabolic syndrome. Iron depletion was more effective in reducing HOMA-R in patients in the top two tertiles of ferritin concentrations (P < 0.05 vs controls), and in carriers of the mutations in the HFE gene of hereditary hemochromatosis (P < 0.05 vs noncarriers).
Besides improved blood sugar, blood donation has been shown to have a significant reduction on blood pressure as well. In a 2012 study of subjects who donated 550-800 ml of blood, the phlebotomy group had significantly decreased blood pressure.
[Systolic blood pressure] decreased from 148.5 ± 12.3 mmHg to 130.5 ± 11.8 mmHg in the phlebotomy group, and from 144.7 ± 14.4 mmHg to 143.8 ± 11.9 mmHg in the control group (difference -16.6 mmHg; 95% CI -20.7 to -12.5; P < 0.001). No significant effect on HOMA index was seen. With regard to secondary outcomes, blood glucose, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio, and HR were significantly decreased by phlebotomy. Changes in BP and HOMA index correlated with ferritin reduction.
Among women, iron supplementation was significantly associated with higher waist circumference, higher blood pressure, high fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance.
Iron-supplement users (n = 212/1000) showed significantly higher values of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), actual BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, Homeostasis-Model-Assessment-Insulin-Resistance, and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol than nonusers. The prevalence of GDM (70.8% vs 44.4%), hypertension (25.9% vs 9.8%), metabolic syndrome (25.9% vs 10.4%) was significantly higher in the former with a 2- to 3-fold-increased risk at multiple regression analyses. Most glucose values of the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly higher in iron supplemented women, both in GDM and normoglycemic individuals.
Besides metabolic syndrome, iron intake was associated with obesity, as well.
The relationship between iron stores and obesity in menstruating women was studied in 20 obese and 20 nonobese women matched for age and contraception. Although no difference was observed in serum iron or total-iron-binding capacity, the obese group showed significantly higher hemoglobin (137 +/- 9 vs 10 g/L, mean +/- SD; P less than 0.01), hematocrit (0.41 +/- 0.02 vs 0.39 +/- 0.03, P less than 0.05), and serum ferritin concentrations (48.0 +/- 44.3 vs 25.8 +/- 19.5 micrograms/L, P less than 0.05). There was no difference between obese and nonobese women in either the menstrual-cycle interval or the duration of the menstrual flow. Iron intake was significantly higher in the obese group (15.9 +/- 2.9 vs 14.1 +/- 2.9 mg/d, P less than 0.05). These results suggest that obese menstruating women are at low risk of depleting iron stores, possibly because of high iron intake. Iron-fortification programs might thus be undesirable in such subjects.
Friday, January 20, 2012
Do you fart a lot when you are vacationing? Well, it's probably the foods that make you fart on vacations.
For instance, eating ice cream will make you fart. A lot. Even while in the car. Your car will smell like shit. That shit will annoy your airline passengers, too. Stop that shit.
I'm not suggesting to avoid ice cream. No. Just don't eat ice cream which has carrageenan, so you won't experience those effects. Other side effects I have experienced with low-quality ice cream, are fatigue and acne. The wrong milkshake would cause the same effect.
When I was on vacation, I can't find any orange juice. Well, I actually can find orange juice, but all of them say "from concentrate." I don't like concentrate juice. So it's just that I could not find orange juice which was not from concentrate. Anyway, I went to gas stations. I went to the local stores there. I found nothing. The only thing I found was the "juice from concentrate." Sigh. Guess I was concentrating too much.
But plenty of milk exists on the counters. Bananas. Oh, bananas are widely available. And they're cheap, palatable, and easy-to-store. In fact, bananas are the third most popular fruit in North America. Probably it's because bananas are a "convenience food": What we mean is that they're cheap, widely available, palatable, and energy-dense. They are easy-to-prepare, too. You just peel the banana with your hands. However, bananas may have toxins. The serotonin in bananas, which is harmful, may be an abundance. The starch of bananas, if unripe, could feed gut flora. And the seeds of the banana may cause problems. Bananas are a common food in hotel breakfasts. Probably because bananas are a cheap food for their customers.
In addition to bananas, coffee is also a common food in hotels. Coffee and bananas would make the perfect hotel breakfast. Pour a lot of sugar into the coffee. Drink the coffee with bananas, and add a bit of salt into the coffee to balance the potassium in the bananas.
In fact, the first time I drank coffee was from a hotel. That took away my coffee-virginity. Interestingly, it happened only a year ago. I love hotel breakfasts.
Bananas & Coffee: The perfect hotel breakfast.
Wednesday, November 30, 2011
The preferred form of Vitamin B-1 is Thiamine Diphosphate or Thiamine Pyrophosphate.
The preferred form of Vitamin B-2 is Riboflavin 5'-Phosphate.
The preferred form of Vitamin B-3 is Niacinamide.
The Preferred Form of Vitamin B-6 is Pyrioxidal 5'-Phosphate.
The preferred Form of Folate is Methylfolate. (Or at least Calcium Folinate.)
The preferred Form of Vitamin B-12 is Methylcobalamin.
A significant percentage of the population cannot convert the inactive forms of the B-vitamins, to the active forms of the B-vitamins. Therefore, I think it's plausible to get the preferred forms of the B-vitamins.
I have seen no commercial multi-vitamin product, or otherwise any B-complex, which has the preferred forms of all of the B-vitamins
Those other the nutrients related to the B-Vitamins:
Biotin Inositol Choline Para-Aminobenzoic Acid N-Acetyl-Cysteine R-Lipoic Acid Carnitine Carnosine Taurine Beta-Alanine Betaine
Choline, biotin, inositol, carnotine, carnosine, taurine, beta-alanine, and beta-alanine could protect against fatty liver disease. This has been shown in rats.
Carnosine could quench hydroxyl radicals. Free iron ions, or pooly-liganded iron, could react with oxidants, to form hydroxyl radicals. For instance, iron could react with hydrogen peroxide, to form hydroxyl radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are more damaging; as it could cause lipid peroxidation and deplete vitamin E. Carnosine could neutralize hydroxyl radicals, therefore it's an antioxidant, sparing vitamin E, and protecting against the effects of excess iron.
Zinc is a relatively non-toxic metal, and could be supplemented in cases of zinc deficiency or poor soil quality. Zinc oxide and zinc carbonate are poorly-absorbed, as they are not soluble in water. Therefore, they are not the preferred forms of zinc. Preferred forms of zinc include zinc citrate, zinc picolinate, and zinc gluconate. Zinc sulphate is preferred likewise, but it could cause intestinal irritation.
Zinc also reduces nitric oxide synthase, supports immune function, and inhibits aromatase, an enzyme which converts testosterone to estrogen.
Selenium supplementation: Do not get anything other than "selenomethionine" or "selenium from yeast." Any other form of selenium is more damaging. Damaging forms of selenium include "sodium selenate", "sodium selenite", "chelated selenium" and "selenium glycinate." Those forms of selenium are unmethylated, and they are toxic since unbound selenium ions are highly reactive and cause free radical damage.
 The Essential Toxin: Impact of Zinc on Human Health Laura M. Plum, Lothar Rink and Hajo Haase * http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/7/4/1342/pdf
 Zinc supplementation in oral rehydration solutions: experimental assessment and mechanisms of action. Altaf W, Perveen S, Rehman KU, Teichberg S, Vancurova I, Harper RG, Wapnir RA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11838884
Zinc deficiency is associated with chronic diarrhea. This condition is generally linked to an overproduction of nitric oxide (NO), which induces secretion and cellular damage as a free radical.
 Zinc-Altered Immune Function and Cytokine Production1 Lothar Rink2 and Holger Kirchner http://jn.nutrition.org/content/130/5/1407S.long
 M.A. Beck, P.C. Kolbeck, Q. Shi, L.H. Rohr, V.C. Morris, and O.A. Levander, “Increased Virulence of a Human Enterovirus (Coxsackievirus B3) in Selenium-Deficient Mice”, J. Infectious Diseases 170, 351-357, 1994.  M.A. Beck, P.C. Kolbeck, L.H. Rohr, Q. Shi, V.C. Morris, and O.A. Levander, “Vitamine E Deficiency Intensifies the Myocardial Injury of Coxsackievirus B3 Infection of Mice”, J. Nutr.
This effect is reversed with selenium deficiency. Older mice that are also selenium deficient are as susceptible to the virus as young mice.
These tests employ lard, special fish oil with vitamin E removed, selenium and vitamin E. The vitamin E prevents the deleterious formation of aliphatic hyperperoxides from the high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids in the fish oil. Fish oil administered without vitamin E depletes the body's store of vitamin E and potentiates the heart damage observed with the virus infection. (Normal fish oil contains a small but sufficient amount of vitamin E to prevent these problems.)
 J Nucleic Acids. 2010 Sep 22;2010. pii: 725071. Prevention of mutation, cancer, and other age-associated diseases by optimizing micronutrient intake. Ames BN. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20936173
 FASEB J. 2011 Jun;25(6):1793-814. Epub 2011 Mar 14. Adaptive dysfunction of selenoproteins from the perspective of the triage theory: why modest selenium deficiency may increase risk of diseases of aging. McCann JC, Ames BN.
 Arther & Beckett. (1999) Thyroid function http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/3/658.abstract?ijkey=142d514bc098871f0edbf58f0989a55060f2627a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
 Arther & Beckett. (2004) Selenium and endocrine systems http://joe.endocrinology-journals.org/content/184/3/455.abstract?ijkey=62929d24abdd3d8eb6509950b387320efd616459&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha+html
 Zinc and micronutrient supplements for children LH Allen - The American journal of clinical nutrition, 1998 - Am Soc Nutrition
Sodium, magnesium, and calcium are a definite "yes." All of those minerals have indisputable evidence that they help to reduce stress.
Sodium reduces the RAAS system and vasopresson. All those systems have been shown to cause inflammation, oxidative stress, and artheroscoleosis.
Magnesium and calcium shuts down PTH, which also have those beneficial effects. David McCarron and others have showed that calcium releives hypertension.
Short-chain and medium-chain saturated fatty acids have indisputable evidence that they are anti-microbial and are metabolically enhancing. However, they are not necessarily for a healthy diet, if you are already PUFA deficient or have good microflora.
Corticosteroids have indisputable evidence that they slow down oxidative metabolism, causes excitation, and calcification of tissues. Adrenaline and noradrenaline have indisputable evidence that they, too, causes this. Estrogen increase corticosteroids, adrenaline, and noradrenaline, via the stimulation of the pituitary and hypothalamus to increase ACTH, or directly stimulate the conversion of cholesterol into corticosteroids in the adrenal glands. Free fatty acids could contribute to corticosteroid stimulation via a positive feedback loop. Estrogen also inhibits the detoxification of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and serotonin via its inhibition of MAO.
Estrogen has been claimed to be protective of Alzheimer's, stroke, hypertension, osteoporosis, and heart disease. However, those protective effects come with a cost of increased nitric oxide, corticosteroids, and catecholamines. A lot of the beneficial effects of estrogen supplementation (e.g. soy) are falsely attributed to the estrogen itself.
High estrogen levels are caused by zinc deficiency, inflammatory eicosanoids, interleukin, and fat mass. Decreased estrogen clearance could be cased by liver congestion, energy deficiency, B-vitamin deficiency, or protein deficiency. Biskind and Biskind showed how B-vitamin and protein deficiency could interfere with the detoxification of estrogen.
Carbon dioxide has been shown to be protective. It's anti-inflammatory and an antioxidant. Speeding up oxidative metabolism raises carbon dioxide retention. Also, maintaining a normal pH also retains carbon dioxide.
Ammonia is toxic. Ammonia is produced when there is not enough minerals such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. A diet suffecient with those minerals clears ammonia. Glucose also helps to reduce ammonia.
Amylase is an enzyme which breaks down starch. Different people have different amylase enzymes. The Japanese have more amylase enzymes encoded in their genes than hunter-gatherers. This shows that amylase is selectively advantegous. Amylase is selectively advantagous because it breaks down the starch into mono- and disaccharides, which are less prone to cause endotoxin and intestinal inflammation. So it suggests that it may be more healthful to eat simple sugars rather than starch. However, it's physiological significance is questioned, as improved digestion could break down the starch entirely into its constituent monosaccharides.
Glycine relaxes the neurons, prevents neuron excitation, and the activation of the HPA axis. In contrast, glutamate and aspartate has the opposite of glycine's effects. Glycine also helps to store glycogen. This effect is shared with adenosine, too.
Tryptophan has shown to cause decreased lifespan, and serotonin release.
Caffeine has been therapeutic in inflammation and caffeine can function as an anti-oxidant due to its similarity to uric acid and its effect in inhibiting xanthine oxidase, which generates free radicals.
A1 milk and gluten are questionable, because even if you have perfect digestion, they could still irritate the intestines and cause inflammation and a leaky gut; unless your salivary and gastric enzymes break down A1 beta casein or gluten, entirely, into its constituent amino acids, before it enters the duodenum.
Fructose is good, at it helps to normalize blood sugar by repleshing liver glycogen, or to increase thyroid conversion. However, fructose has been claimed to cause glycation about seven times fater than glucose. However, it's physiological significance is questioned.
Based on the indisputable evidence, a safe diet is a diet based on salt, magnesium, calcium, coconut oil, ghee, vinegar, and cooked starch. Sufficient protein and B-vitamins should help with liver function. Monosodium glutamate and aspartame should be avoided. Glycine and proline-rich foods (such as collagen) should be supplemented. Baking soda, magnesium citrate, and calcium carbonate as supplements, digestive enzymes, systemic enzymes, and mixed tocopherols as supplements.
White rice, potatoes, white-fleshed sweet potatoes, taro, yams, and others. Oysters for zinc.
Limit tryptophan, methionine, and cysteine.
Sufficient iodine and selenium. Milk is a good source of iodine, containing 60 mcg per cup.
Blood donation. Iron has been shown to react with endogenous oxidants to produce even more dangerous free radicals. Serum ferritin should be between 30-40. Anthony Colpo commenter claimed that 30 is not enough - they had exhaustion. And Bruce Ames hypothesized that iron deficiency causes aging.
Tamoxifen is estrogenic.
Aspirin, coffee, and niacinamide as supplements. However, synthetic vitamins should be taken cautiously.
Supplementation with the digestive enzyme, DPP IV, by helping with the breakdown of allergic peptides, has been therapeutic in Celiac disease, and milk intolerance. In addition, DPP IV enzymes have been used to treat autism and ADHD, as they have been known to have gluten and casein intolerance, elevated serotonin, and lowered DPP IV production. However, possible allergens in the production of the DPP IV enzyme, or to an allergy to the bacteria, are not unheard of.
Food colorings are known to inhibit digestive enzymes, thus exacerbating the inflammatory cycle. In cases such as ADHD, food colorings has been know to exacerbate those symptoms. For instance, "caramel color" in coke might inhibit digestive enzymes, causing systemic inflammation. Sodium benzoate, an ingredient in coke, is a known digestive enzyme inhibitor, and it is known to deplete glycine.
All those are just based on that evidence alone.
REFERENCESPlasma levels of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein were also higher in the winter and lower in the summer. Curr Med Chem. 2004 May;11(9):1113-33. Non-antioxidant activities of vitamin E. Zingg JM, Azzi A.
Is vitamin E an antioxidant, a regulator of signal transduction and gene expression, or a ‘junk’ food? Comments on the two accompanying papers: “Molecular mechanism of α-tocopherol action” by A. Azzi and “Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more” by M. Traber and J. Atkinson
Regina Brigelius-Flohéa, Kelvin J.A. Davies
Tocopherols and tocotrienols in membranes: A critical review Jeffrey Atkinsona, , , Raquel F. Epandb, Richard M. Epandb
RELATION BETWEEN SERUM AND URINARY CALCIUM WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO PARATHYROID ACTIVITY M. Peacock, W.G. Robertson, B.E.C. Nordin
VitRELATION BETWEEN SERUM AND URINARY CALCIUM WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO PARATHYROID ACTIVITY
M. Peacock, W.G. Robertson, B.E.C. Nordinamin D deficiency and renal calcium transport in the rat. M Yamamoto, Y Kawanobe http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC370503/pdf/jcinvest00710-0203.pdf
Calcium-regulated renal calcium handling in healthy men: relationship to sodium handling http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/83/7/2366.full
Milk alkali syndrome and the dynamics of calcium homeostasis [HTML] from asnjournals.org AJ Felsenfeld http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/1/4/641.full
Calcium clamp technique: suppression of serum intact PTH by induced hypercalcaemia in normal man and primary hyperparathyroidism
Bioconversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A in humans1,2,3,4,5 Guangwen Tang http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2854912/
EFFECT OF ZINC AND FAT INTAKE ON ABSORPTION AND CONVERSION OF INGESTED ß-CAROTENE TO VITAMIN A IN LACTATING INDONESIAN WOMEN
Effects of short-term administration of growth hormone in healthy young men, women, and women taking oral contraceptives B. Edén Engström, P. Burman, A. G. Johansson, L. Wide, F. A. Karlsson http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2796.2000.00672.x/full
EFFECTS OF OESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE ON AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN ARTERIES OF POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN Yu-Lu Liang1, Helena Teede1, Louise M. Shiel1, Adrian Thomas2, Robyn Craven3, Nirupa Sachithanandan1, John J. McNeil2, James D. Cameron4, Anthony Dart5, Barry P. McGrath1,* Article first published online: 28 JUN 2007 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1440-1681.1997.tb01225.x/abstract
Effects of estrogen on gender-related autonomic differences in humans C. C. Liu,1,* Terry B. J. Kuo,2,4,* and Cheryl C. H. Yang3 http://ajpheart.physiology.org/content/285/5/H2188.full
Effects of estrogens and progestogens on the renin-aldosterone system and blood pressure Wolfgang K.H. Oelkers http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0039128X96000074
"High dose estrogens, especially ethinylestradiol (EE) and mestranol, stimulate the synthesis of hepatic proteins including coagulation factors, sex hormone binding globulin, and angiotensinogen (Aogen). In the steady state, high plasma levels of Aogen produce only a very small increase of angiotensin II (AII) and plasma renin activity, because AII inhibits the secretion of renin and lowers plasma renin concentration. However, the increase in AII is sufficient for a slight reduction in renal blood flow and a slight increase in exchangeable sodium and blood pressure; in susceptible women, blood pressure may rise considerably.
"Synthetic progestogens are commonly devoid of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonistic effect of progesterone, and some are weak estrogen receptor agonists.
The metabolic clearance rate of progesterone in males and ovariectomized females. B Little, J F Tait, S A Tait, and F Erlenmeyer http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC292769/
Effects of sex steroid hormones on regional fat depots as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in transsexuals J. M. H. Elbers1, H. Asscheman1, J. C. Seidell2, and L. J. G. Gooren1 http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/276/2/E317.short
Progesterone Antagonists Increase Androgen Receptor Expression in the Rhesus Macaque and Human Endometrium http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/86/6/2668.full
Exogenous Progesterone Attenuates the Subjective Effects of Smoked Cocaine in Women, but not in Men Suzette M Evans1 and Richard W Foltin1 http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v31/n3/abs/1300887a.html
Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol-Induced Changes in Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion in Man: Effects of Spironolactone and RU486 http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/67/4/824.short
Estrogenic encounters: How interactions between aromatase and the environment modulate aggression Brian C. Trainor,a* Helen H. Kyomen,b and Catherine A. Marlerc
Effects of progestins on sexual behaviour in castrated lizards (Cnemidophorus inornatus) J. Lindzey and D. Crews http://joe.endocrinology-journals.org/content/119/2/265.short
Progesterone receptors mediate male aggression toward infants Johanna S. Schneider*, Marielle K. Stone*, Katherine E. Wynne-Edwards†, Teresa H. Horton*, John Lydon‡, Bert O'Malley‡, and Jon E. Levine*§ http://www.pnas.org/content/100/5/2951.full
"High T levels, however, do not necessarily decrease paternal behavior in many species (1, 2) and even promote paternal behavior in the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus (3) via aromatization to estrogen (4). Furthermore, T levels do not correlate with paternal behavior in common laboratory mice (5). In humans, some fathers experience a decrease in T levels immediately after birth of a child (6, 7); however, its association with paternal behaviors is not known.
"Although male Cynomolgus monkeys exhibit increased male-male aggression after medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) treatments (35), the specific effects of this progestin on infant-directed aggression in male primates have not been examined.
PROGESTERONE AND HETEROTYPICAL SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN MALE RATS J. M. DAVIDSON and S. LEVINE http://joe.endocrinology-journals.org/content/44/1/129.short "Male rats castrated during the first few days of life, but not later, show behavioural responses closely resembling those of normal females after treatment with ovarian steroids in adulthood. This suggests that testicular secretion in the neonatal period is responsible for the determination of future behavioural patterns (Grady, Phoenix & Young, 1965;
Sexual orientation in women: An investigation of hormonal and personality variables☆ C.P. Dancey http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/030105119090142J
Testicular function in transsexual men Although the sperm counts of 5 of 8 adult male-to-female transsexuals were low, other aspects of testicular function were normal. Plasma production rates of testosterone averaged 6.4 mg/24 hours, a value similar to the 5.7 mg/24 hours produced by heterosexual adult men. Production rates of 17-estradiol and estrone, 55µg/24 hours and 52 µg/24 hours, were also normal. Observed abnormalities of pituitary function and pituitary response to LHRH cannot be explained by abnormal testicular steroidogenesis.
"A technique of incubation of testicular tissue in vitro with radiolabeled precursors was applied in the investigation of the steroid biosynthesis by testes of four young men after long-term, high-dose estrogen treatment. A positive correlation between plasma and testicular steroid levels, and in vitro capacity of the testes to metabolize progesterone was demonstrated.
"Estrogen administration produced a very significant inhibition of plasma and testicular levels of testosterone. The in vitro synthesis of testosterone from progesterone was very severely impaired; especially 17α-hydroxylation of progesterone. 20α-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase activity was found to be increased after estrogen treatment, both in vivo and in vitro.
Fed Proc. 1959 Dec;18:1057-65. Effects of progesterone and synthetic progestins on the reproductive physiology of normal men. HELLER CG, MOORE DJ, PAULSEN CA, NELSON WO, LAIDLAW WM.
Optimal Waist-to-Hip Ratios in Women Activate Neural Reward Centers in Men Steven M. Platek1*, Devendra Singh2 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0009042
Seasonal Variation of Testosterone and Waist to Hip Ratio in Men: The Tromsø Study Johan Svartberg, Rolf Jorde, Johan Sundsfjord, Kaare H. Bønaa and Elizabeth Barrett-Connor http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/88/7/3099.short
"Lowest testosterone levels occurred in months with the highest temperatures and longest hours of daylight. Waist to hip ratio paralleled the change in daylight and temperature, with the highest values during the summer and was thus inversely related to the seasonal testosterone variation.
Progesterone, prolactin, and gynaecomastia in men with liver disease. M J Farthing, J R Green, C R Edwards, A M Dawson http://gut.bmj.com/content/23/4/276.abstract
"Plasma progesterone was raised in 36 of 50 (72%) men with liver disease compared with 20 healthy male control subjects. Plasma progesterone was significantly higher in men with non-alcoholic cirrhosis with gynaecomastia than those without, but no similar relationship was found in men with alcoholic fatty change and alcoholic cirrhosis. Hyperprolactinaemia was found in 14% of men with liver disease but levels were unrelated to the presence of gynaecomastia. Increased circulating levels of progesterone and prolactin alone do not explain the development of gynaecomastia in patients with liver disease, but progesterone may be an additional factor acting in association with the known disturbances of other sex steroids.
Visceral fat accumulation in men is positively associated with insulin, glucose, and C-peptide levels, but negatively with testosterone levels Jacob C. Seidell , a, b, c, d, 1, Per Björntorpa, b, c, d, Lars Sjöströma, b, c, d, Henry Kvista, b, c, d, Rune Sannerstedta, b, c, d http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/002604959090297P
Progesterone: the forgotten hormone in men? M Oettel1 and AK Mukhopadhyay2 1Jena http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13685530400004199 "A progestin may stimulate weight gain and appetite in men as well as in women.
Effect of sex on the strain differences in hepatic metabolism of starved and nonstarved rats http://jn.nutrition.org/content/109/2/272.full.pdf
Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol andáVLDL inátype 2ádiabetic patients andáinánondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332206000539
Effects on biotin, fat type and sodium nitrite on organ size, plasma constituents and liver fatty acid composition in rats* http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0271531785801743
The potential role of biotin insufficiency on essential fatty acid metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk http://www.direct-ms.org/pdf/EvolutionPaleolithic/Biotin%20Paper.pdf
Dietary biotin effects on desaturation and elongation of 14C-linoleic acid in the chicken http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027153170580274X
5 - Hormones and the Development and Expression of Aggressive Behavior B.C. Trainor, C.L. Sisk, R.J. Nelson http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008088783800005X
"Throughout the chapter, a comparison is made between the regulation of rodent animal models of aggression and human aggression with the goal of emphasizing where further research is needed to understand nonadaptive or pathological aggression.
Activation of aggressive behavior by progesterone and testosterone in male tree lizards, Urosaurus ornatus
S.L Weiss , , M.C Moore http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016648004000024
Changes in brain testosterone and allopregnanolone biosynthesis elicit aggressive behavior Graziano Pinna *, Erminio Costa, and Alessandro Guidotti http://www.pnas.org/content/102/6/2135.long
Effects of estrogens and progestogens on the renin-aldosterone system and blood pressure WKH Oelkers - Steroids, 1996 - Elsevier Endogenous 17β-estradiol (E2) and low parenteral doses of exogenous E2 are vasodilators. High dose estrogens, especially ethinylestradiol (EE) and mestranol, stimulate the synthesis of hepatic proteins including coagulation factors, sex hormone binding globulin, and ... Cited by 172 - Related articles - BL Direct - All 6 versions http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0039128x96000074
Comment on progesterone effects in breast tissue http://www.springerlink.com/content/x125660612190317/
Progesterone modulation of androgen-dependent sexual behavior in male rats
Diane M. Witt , ∗, Larry J. Young†, David Crews†
"Mounting was observed in 75% of the T-alone males. More than half (64%) of the P-atone males and 100% P + T males exhibited mounting. In most cases, mounting was followed by intromission responses. Subsequently, intact and gonadectomized males received daily injections of the P antagonist RU486 along with hormone treatment. After receiving RU486, only 63% of the intact males and 71 % of the T-alone males mounted successfully. The facilitatory effects of P on copulatory behavior were completely abolished by RU486 treatment. The present studies provide the first evidence in mammals suggesting that P-dependent mechanisms influence neurochemical pathways involved in copulation.
Modulation by estradiol of serotonin receptors in brain A Biegon and BS McEwen http://www.jneurosci.org/content/2/2/199.full.pdf+html
Estrogens were found to exert a biphasic effect on the density of serotonin receptors in the female rat brain: an acute reduction in serotonin receptor density throughout the brain is followed 48 to 72 hr later by a selective increase in those brain regions known to contain estrogen receptors--hypothalamus, preoptic area, and amygdala. The acute reduction in serotonin receptor density can be mimicked by estradiol in vitro. We conclude that estradiol may have a fast, direct effect on brain membranes to modify serotonin receptor availability, while exerting a slow effect on the same receptors through an interaction with intracellular estrogen receptors in those brain regions that contain them. The observation that female sex hormones are involved in the regulation of serotonin receptors may have important implications in the understanding of female sexual behavior in the female rat and in the understanding of hormone-linked emotional disturbances in women
Estradiol-17 [beta] increase serotonin transporter (SERT) mRNA levels and the density of SERT-binding sites in female rat brain JK McQueen, H Wilson… - Molecular brain research, 1997 - Elsevier
Effects of estradiol and progesterone administration on human serotonin 2A receptor binding: a PET study EL Moses, WC Drevets, G Smith, CA Mathis http://directory.umm.ac.id/Data%20Elmu/jurnal/B/Biological%20Psichatry/Vol48.Issue8.2000/6836.pdf
Estradiol-17β increase serotonin transporter (SERT) mRNA levels and the density of SERT-binding sites in female rat brain Judith K. McQueen , Helen Wilson, George Fink
Effects of chronic 17β-estradiol treatment on the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor mRNA and binding levels in the rat brain Marie K. Österlund, Christer Halldin, Yasmin L. Hurd http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2396(200001)35:1%3C39::AID-SYN5%3E3.0.CO;2-T/abstract
Thus, the previous findings together with the present results indicate that estradiol-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor mRNA expression appears within hours, but diminishes with chronic treatment when significant changes on the receptor-protein level are apparent.
Estrogen actions in the central nervous system [PDF] from uwks.ac.id Free from Publisher BS McEwen http://www.fk.uwks.ac.id/elib/Arsip/Departemen/Biokimia/Estrogen%20Actions%20in%20the%20Central%20Nervous%20System.pdf
M.A. Beck, P.C. Kolbeck, Q. Shi, L.H. Rohr, V.C. Morris, and O.A. Levander, “Increased Virulence of a Human Enterovirus (Coxsackievirus B3) in Selenium-Deficient Mice”, J. Infectious Diseases 170, 351-357, 1994. M.A. Beck, P.C. Kolbeck, L.H. Rohr, Q. Shi, V.C. Morris, and O.A. Levander, “Vitamine E Deficiency Intensifies the Myocardial Injury of Coxsackievirus B3 Infection of Mice”, J. Nutr.
This effect is reversed with selenium deficiency. Older mice that are also selenium deficient are as susceptible to the virus as young mice.
These tests employ lard, special fish oil with vitamin E removed, selenium and vitamin E. The vitamin E prevents the deleterious formation of aliphatic hyperperoxides from the high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids in the fish oil. Fish oil administered without vitamin E depletes the body's store of vitamin E and potentiates the heart damage observed with the virus infection. (Normal fish oil contains a small but sufficient amount of vitamin E to prevent these problems.)
Metabolism of Linoleic Acid by Human Gut Bacteria: Different Routes for Biosynthesis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Estelle Devillard, Freda M. McIntosh, Sylvia H. Duncan, and R. John Wallace* http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1899373/
Differences between human subjects in the composition of the faecal bacterial community and faecal metabolism of linoleic acid Estelle Devillard1,†, Freda M. McIntosh1, Delphine Paillard1, Nadine A. Thomas1, Kevin J. Shingfield2 and R. John Wallace1 http://mic.sgmjournals.org/content/155/2/513.full
Prevent Osteoporosis with Egg Shell Calcium, Vitamins D and K2, and Other Nutrients http://www.smart-publications.com/articles/prevent-osteoporosis-with-egg-shell-calcium-vitamins-d-and-k2-and-othe/page-2
serotonin + the thromboxane analog U-46619, in estrogen-deprived VMC were suppressed by >72 h in 17-estradiol. http://ajpheart.physiology.org/content/290/1/H295.short
Calcium paradox of aldosteronism and the role of the parathyroid glands Alex Vidal,1 Yao Sun,1 Syamal K. Bhattacharya,3 Robert A. Ahokas,4 Ivan C. Gerling,2 and Karl T. Weber1 http://ajpheart.physiology.org/content/290/1/H286.full
Is hypovitaminosis D one of the environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis? http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/133/7/1869.short
Nat Cell Biol. 2008 May;10(5):611-8. Epub 2008 Apr 6. p53 regulates glucose metabolism through an IKK-NF-kappaB pathway and inhibits cell transformation. Kawauchi K, Araki K, Tobiume K, Tanaka N. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18391940
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Mar;284(3):H1028-34. Epub 2002 Nov 21. Endotoxemia stimulates skeletal muscle Na+-K+-ATPase and raises blood lactate under aerobic conditions in humans. Bundgaard H, Kjeldsen K, Suarez Krabbe K, van Hall G, Simonsen L, Qvist J, Hansen CM, Moller K, Fonsmark L, Lav Madsen P, Klarlund Pedersen B. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12446281
Biochem Pharmacol. 1995 Jan 6;49(1):65-8. Endotoxin inhibits glucuronidation in the liver. An effect mediated by intercellular communication. Bánhegyi G, Mucha I, Garzó T, Antoni F, Mandl J. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7840784
Effects of catecholamines on lactic acid output during progressive working contractions. by W N Stainsby, C Sumners, P D Eitzman http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-catecholamines-lactic-acid-output-during-progressive-working-contractions/
Agressologie. 1973;14(1):25-30. [Aspirin, catecholamines and blood lactic acid]. [Article in French] Laborit G, Baron C, Laborit H.
Nutr Metab. 1976;20(1):41-61. Biotin status and lipid metabolism in adult obese hypercholesterolemic inbred rats. Marshall MW, Haubrich M, Washington VA, Chang MW, Young CW, Wheeler MA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/958648
Aldosterone regulation of T-type calcium channels☆
Michel F Rossiera, b, , , Olivier Lesouhaitiera, Emeline Perriera, Liliane Bockhorna, Alberto Chiappeb, Nathalie Lalevéea http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960076003002012
Effects of estradiol and progesterone on the increased synthesis of collagen in atherosclerotic rabbit aortas☆ G.M. Fischer, M.L. Swain∗ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0021915085901777
Effects of Progesterone and Four Synthetic Progestagens on Sodium Balance and the Renin-Aldosterone System in Man*
"50 mg of progesterone im caused, as expected, natriuresis, an increase in plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma angiotensin II concentration (PAC) and aldosterone excretion (AER), while plasma renin substrate concentration (PRS) remained unchanged.
Horm Metab Res. 2005 Jul;37(7):455-9. Aldosterone inhibits uncoupling protein-1, induces insulin resistance, and stimulates proinflammatory adipokines in adipocytes. Kraus D, Jäger J, Meier B, Fasshauer M, Klein J. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16034720
Effects of estrogens and progestogens on the renin-aldosterone system and blood pressure Wolfgang K.H. Oelkers http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0039128X96000074
"Endogenous 17β-estradiol (E2) and low parenteral doses of exogenous E2 are vasodilators. High dose estrogens, especially ethinylestradiol (EE) and mestranol, stimulate the synthesis of hepatic proteins including coagulation factors, sex hormone binding globulin, and angiotensinogen (Aogen).
"Endogenous progesterone is a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Endogenous or exogenous progesterone leads to sodium loss and a compensatory increase in renin secretion, plasma renin activity, AII, and plasma aldosterone, e.g. in the second half of the menstrual cycle. Synthetic progestogens are commonly devoid of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonistic effect of progesterone, and some are weak estrogen receptor agonists.
Pediatr Nephrol. 1992 May;6(3):313. Normal ranges for urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium in Portuguese children. Sa G, Proença H, Rosa FC. http://www.springerlink.com/content/tp60q38002436510/
Absorption of Calcium as the Carbonate and Citrate Salts, with Some Observations on Method http://www.springerlink.com/content/dx8kyt8u2t0xm37l/ Absorbability of calcium from the carbonate and citrate salts was compared at 300 mg and 1000 mg calcium loads, ingested as part of a light breakfast meal.
Calcium Absorption Varies within the Reference Range for Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Robert P. Heaney, MD, FACN, M. Susan Dowell, PhD, Cecilia A. Hale, PhD and Adrianne Bendich, PhD, FACN
"AUC9 (± SEM), was 3.63 mg hr/dL ± 0.234 in participants pretreated with 25OHD and 2.20 ± 0.240 in those not pretreated (P < 0.001). In brief, absorption was 65% higher at serum 25OHD levels averaging 86.5 nmol/L than at levels averaging 50 nmol/L (both values within the nominal reference range for this analyte).
Urinary calcium excretion in Swedish children E Esbjorner1,*, IL Jones2
Dietary salt, urinary calcium, and bone loss Linda K. Massey1,*, Susan J. Whiting2 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbmr.5650110603/abstract
Changes in Serum and Urinary Calcium during Treatment with Hydrochlorothiazide: Studies on Mechanisms Arnold S. Brickman, Shaul G. Massry, and Jack W. Coburn
Both the reduction in urinary calcium and increase in urinary phosphate after the use of thiazides may be due, in part, to potentiation of the action of the parathyroid hormone on the nephron. The rise in serum calcium could be due to thiazide-induced release of calcium from bone into extracellular fluid, particularly in states where bone resorption may be augmented, i.e., vitamin D therapy or hyperparathyroidism.
Impaired renal calcium absorption in mice lacking calcium channel ß3 subunits José F. Bernardo,* Clara E. Magyar,† W. Bruce Sneddon,† and Peter A. Friedman*† http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2955898/
The absence of ß3 subunits resulted in compensatory increases of TrpV5 calcium channels, the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase, NCX1 Na/Ca exchanger protein, and calbindin-D9k but not calbindin-D28k. We conclude that TrpV5 mediates basal renal calcium absorption and that a multimeric calcium channel that includes CaVß3 mediates stimulated calcium transport.
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199707103370201 Trial of Calcium to Prevent Preeclampsia Richard J. Levine, M.D., John C. Hauth, M.D., Luis B. Curet, M.D., Baha M. Sibai, M.D., Patrick M. Catalano, M.D., Cynthia D. Morris, Ph.D., Rebecca DerSimonian, Sc.D., Joy R. Esterlitz, M.S., Elizabeth G. Raymond, M.D., Diane E. Bild, M.D., John D. Clemens, M.D., Jeffrey A. Cutler, M.D., Marian G. Ewell, Steven A. Friedman, Robert L. Goldenberg, Sig-Linda Jacobson, Gary M. Joffe, M.D, Mark A. Klebanoff, and Alice S. Petrulis, M.D.
Calcium supplementation did not significantly reduce the incidence or severity of preeclampsia or delay its onset. Preeclampsia occurred in 158 of the 2295 women in the calcium group (6.9 percent) and 168 of the 2294 women in the placebo group (7.3 percent) (relative risk, 0.94; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.76 to 1.16). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the prevalence of pregnancy-associated hypertension without preeclampsia (15.3 percent vs. 17.3 percent) or of all hypertensive disorders (22.2 percent vs. 24.6 percent). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures during pregnancy were similar in both groups. Calcium did not reduce the numbers of preterm deliveries, small-for-gestational-age births, or fetal and neonatal deaths; nor did it increase urolithiasis during pregnancy.
EFFECTS OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL MENOPAUSE ON PLASMA AND URINARY CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS M.M. Young M.B. Durh., OF THE SCIENTIFIC STAFF, B.E.C. Nordin M.D., Ph.D. Lond., F.R.C.P., DIRECTOR http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673667929613 "It is suggested that loss of œ strogenic activity at the menopause results in increased bone resorption.
Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion1,2,3 Robert P Heaney and Karen Rafferty http://www.ajcn.org/content/74/3/343.long The excess calciuria associated with consumption of carbonated beverages is confined to caffeinated beverages. Acidulant type has no acute effect. Because the caffeine effect is known to be compensated for by reduced calciuria later in the day, we conclude that the net effect of carbonated beverage constituents on calcium economy is negligible.The skeletal effects of carbonated beverage consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement.
Urinary calcium excretion in healthy school children Laura F. Alconcher, Cecilia Castro, Daniel Quintana, Nancy Abt, Luis Moran, Laura Gonzalez, Mabel Cella and Mabel Torelli http://www.springerlink.com/content/1rx6rc67tmnftjnk/
"The Ca/Cr ratio in the first-morning urine sample correlated poorly with the 24-h calcium excretion, suggesting that the Ca/Cr ratio in first-morning urine samples cannot replace the 24-h measurement.
Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in children György S. Reusz, Mariann Dobos, Dennis Byrd, Péter Sallay, Miklós Miltényi and Tivadar Tulassay http://www.springerlink.com/content/q287536341qx30q7/
Urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium in children S. Ghazali, T. M. Barratt http://adc.bmj.com/content/49/2/97.abstract After a milk load of 700 ml/1·73 m2 the urinary calcium/creatinine concentration ratio rose in the first two hours, but in no sample exceeded 0·25 mg/mg.
Urinary calcium and calcium balance in young men as affected by level of protein and phosphorus intake M Hegsted, SA Schuette, MB Zemel http://jn.nutrition.org/content/111/3/553.full.pdf
The effect of dietary sodium on urinary calcium and potassium excretion in normotensive men with different calcium intakes JJ Castenmiller, RP Mensink http://www.ajcn.org/content/41/1/52.full.pdf
Effect of estrogens and calcium carbonate on bone loss in postmenopausal women RR RECKER, PD SAVILLE http://www.annals.org/content/87/6/649.short
Urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium in children S. Ghazali and T. M. Barratt http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1648734/
Effect of Estrogens and Calcium Carbonate on Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women ROBERT R. RECKER, M.D., F.A.C.P.; PAUL D. SAVILLE, M.D., F.A.C.P.; and ROBERT P. HEANEY, M.D., F.A.C.P.  these techniques are sufficiently sensitive to detect age-related bone loss;  postmenopausal sex-hormone replacement measurably decreases age-related bone loss by suppressing bone turnover, resorption more than accretion; and  calcium supplements produce the same effect but at the dose we used were slightly less effective.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1982 Mar;60(3):331-4. Role of acidosis in the protein wasting of fasting in the rat and the rabbit. Hannaford MC, Goldstein MB, Josse RG, Halperin ML. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7074421
A Novel Property of Povidon-Iodine: Inhibition of Excessive Protease Levels in Chronic Non-Healing Wounds Sabine A Eming1,3, Sigrun Smola-Hess2,3, Peter Kurschat1, Doris Hirche1, Thomas Krieg1 and Hans Smola1,4 http://www.nature.com/jid/journal/v126/n12/full/5700474a.html
"Iodine is strongly oxidative and easily reacts with the amino, phenol, and –SH groups of amino acids, with unsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides. For enzymes, this results in denaturation and loss of function and we suspect that it is this mechanism we observe in our experiments.
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1981 Dec;98(4):556-63. The effect of varying iodine content on the proteolytic activity of rat thyroid lysosomes. Santisteban P, Lamas L. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6272517
"The proteolytic activity of lysosomal fractions from the various experimental groups towards thyroglobulin decreased slightly with increased iodide supply both in chronic and acute experiments. The results suggest that thyroid lysosomal activity may participate in the autoregulation of thyroid secretion by inducing synthesis of new enzymes and modulating thyroglobulin degradation.
J Nutr. 1969 Feb;97(2):246-54. Interrelationship of triglycerides with calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the rat. Tadayyon B, Lutwak L. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5767134 Fat has little to do with the absorption of calcium. Though vitamin D, lactose, protein, antibiotics, and growth hormone. Phytate and phosphate lowers calcium assimilation.
Effect of Magnesium Depletion on Responsiveness to Parathyroid Hormone in Parathyroidectomized Rats T. J. Hahn, L. R. Chase, and L. V. Avioli
Interaction of calcium and phosphate decreases ileal magnesium solubility and apparent magnesium absorption in rats EJ Brink, AC Beynen, PR Dekker http://jn.nutrition.org/content/122/3/580.full.pdf
Calcium antagonizes magnesium in rats, but not in humans.
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1977 Sep;86(1):81-8. Studies on circadian variations of plasma TSH, thyroxine and triiodothyronine in man. Lucke C, Hehrmann R, von Mayersbach K, von zur Mühlen A.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Dec 15;29(12):1302-6. Hyperinsulinemia: the missing link among oxidative stress and age-related diseases? Facchini FS, Hua NW, Reaven GM, Stoohs RA.
Metabolism. 2002 Oct;51(10):1230-4. A calcium-deficient diet caused decreased bone mineral density and secondary elevation of estrogen in aged male rats-effect of menatetrenone and elcatonin. Kato S, Mano T, Kobayashi T, Yamazaki N, Himeno Y, Yamamoto K, Itoh M, Harada N, Nagasaka A.
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009 Feb 3;8:7. Parathyroid hormone, but not vitamin D, is associated with the metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese women and men: a cross-sectional study. Hjelmesaeth J, Hofsø D, Aasheim ET, Jenssen T, Moan J, Hager H, Røislien J, Bollerslev J. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19187564
Arch Pharm Res. 2008 Jul;31(7):891-9. Epub 2008 Aug 14. Effects of calcium channel blockers on hyaluronidase-induced capillary vascular permeability. Halici Z, Suleyman H, Cadirci E.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):877-85. Dairy calcium supplementation in overweight or obese persons: its effect on markers of fat metabolism. Bortolotti M, Rudelle S, Schneiter P, Vidal H, Loizon E, Tappy L, Acheson KJ.
Dig Liver Dis. 2009 Aug;41(8):541-50. Epub 2009 Feb 4. Transglutaminases in inflammation and fibrosis of the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. Elli L, Bergamini CM, Bardella MT, Schuppan D.
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1977 Sep;86(1):81-8. Studies on circadian variations of plasma TSH, thyroxine and triiodothyronine in man. Lucke C, Hehrmann R, von Mayersbach K, von zur Mühlen A. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/578614
Urinary Excretion of Calcium Following an Oral Calcium Loading Test in Healthy Children F. Bruder Stapleton, H. Norman Noe, Gerald Jerkins, Shane Roy III http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/69/5/594.short
NF-B inhibitors might also prevent progression to colorectal cancer by preventing expression of COX2 — another NF-B target gene. COX2 is responsible for inducible prostaglandin synthesis during inflammation. The link between COX2 and colorectal cancer is supported strongly by epidemiological and experimental evidence. COX2 is overexpressed in colon adenomas and carcinomas of human and mouse origin89, 90, and Cox2-null mice are resistant to colorectal cancer91, 92. Long-term consumption of aspirin or other COX inhibitors over a period of 10–15 years has been reported to reduce the relative risk of colorectal cancer by 40–50% (Refs 93,94).
Given the ability of both aspirin and sulindac to inhibit IKK99, 100, it is possible that some of their chemopreventive activity is derived from their ability to prevent NF-B activation. Inhibition of IKK activity using sulindac sulphide was shown to induce the apoptosis of a colorectal cancer cell line100. Curcumin — another less potent and even less specific inhibitor of IKK — is another anti-inflammatory compound101. Curcumin has been shown to reduce colon carcinogenesis in several animal models95, 102 and to inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer cells103. Its extensive consumption in the Indian subcontinent has been linked to low incidence of colorectal cancer104
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17622575 "By contrast, the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids are due largely to their ability to reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. This effect has been predominantly attributed to the repression of key inflammatory transcription factors, including AP-1 and NF-kappaB, and is termed transrepression.
Physiol Behav. 1996 Jan;59(1):133-9. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs alter body temperature and suppress melatonin in humans. Murphy PJ, Myers BL, Badia P.
ALDOSTERONE & AMMONIA
Aldosterone effects on renal metabolism. R S Snart and E Taylor http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1282502/
The dose-response characteristic obtained for this aldosterone-stimulated ammonia release has been determined. 4. The effect of a high Na+ diet on the ammonia release has been studied. An initial decrease after 2 days may be associated with decreased endogenous aldosterone secretion. However, aldosterone (2.5 microgram/100 g body weight)injections into these high Na+ treated animals fails to restore the normal ammonia release. 5. The effects of aldosterone (2.5 microgram/100 g body weight), dexamethasone (2.5 microgram/100 g body weight) and corticosterone (2.5 microgram/100 g body weight) injections, in adrenalectomized rats, on ammonia release and tissue tyrosine aminotransferase activities have been compared.
Antiinflammatory Action of Glucocorticoids — New Mechanisms for Old Drugs Turk Rhen, Ph.D., and John A. Cidlowski, Ph.D. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:1711-1723October 20, 2005 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra050541
Am J Vet Res. 1978 Jan;39(1):159-61. Effect of thyroid state on magnesium concentration of rat tissues. Oliver JW.
Stimulatory effects of hyperprolactinemia on aldosterone secretion in ovariectomized rats. Kau MM, Chang LL, Kan SF, Ho LT, Wang PS. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11928939
Metabolism. 2003 Aug;52(8):1072-7. Dietary sodium restriction exacerbates age-related changes in rat adipose tissue and liver lipogenesis. Xavier AR, Garófalo MA, Migliorini RH, Kettelhut IC.
Prog Lipid Res. 2000 May;39(3):231-55. Vitamin E: non-antioxidant roles. Azzi A, Stocker A.
Estradiol activates mast cells via a non-genomic estrogen receptor-α and calcium influx Masafumi Zaitsu,a Shin-Ichiro Narita,a K. Chad Lambert,a James J. Grady,b D. Mark Estes,a Edward M. Curran,a Edward G. Brooks,a Cheryl S. Watson,c Randall M. Goldblum,a and Terumi Midoro-Horiutia* http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2603032/
Metabolic acidosis stimulates protein degradation in rat muscle by a glucocorticoid-dependent mechanism. R C May, R A Kelly, and W E Mitch http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC423396/
Regulation of GH Secretion in Acromegaly: Reproducibility of Daily GH Profiles and Attenuated Negative Feedback by IGF-I Craig A. Jaffe, Wenqin Pan, Morton B. Brown, Roberta DeMott-Friberg and Ariel L. Barkan http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/86/9/4364.full
Yet, nocturnal GH augmentation persisted during the infusion of a supraphysiological dose of octreotide, so that the nocturnal decline in somatostatin is unlikely to be the cause of the augmented GH secretion (32). Similarly, a nocturnal rise in GH secretion persisted despite continuous infusion of GH-releasing peptide-6 (33). This suggests that a nighttime increase in GH secretagogue is also unlikely to be the driving force for nocturnal GH release. In contrast, a continuous infusion of GHRH antagonist eliminated nearly all of the nocturnal GH rise in normal subjects (2). Therefore, the role of central GHRH as a driving force in normal and, conceivably, in acromegalic subjects needs to be considered.
Steroids. 1996 Apr;61(4):166-71. Effects of estrogens and progestogens on the renin-aldosterone system and blood pressure. Oelkers WK.
"Endogenous progesterone is a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Endogenous or exogenous progesterone leads to sodium loss and a compensatory increase in renin secretion, plasma renin activity, AII, and plasma aldosterone, e.g. in the second half of the menstrual cycle.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1982 Mar;60(3):331-4. Role of acidosis in the protein wasting of fasting in the rat and the rabbit. Hannaford MC, Goldstein MB, Josse RG, Halperin ML.
Steroids. 2005 May-Jun;70(5-7):347-51. Epub 2005 Mar 24. Nongenomic effects of mineralocorticoid receptor activation in the cardiovascular system. Mihailidou AS, Funder JW. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15862816
In rabbit cardiomyocytes, aldosterone increases intracellular [Na+] by activating Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport, with secondary effects on Na+/K+ pump activity. Pump current rises approximately 10-fold within 15', is unaffected by actinomycin D or the MR antagonist canrenone, and not elevated by cortisol. Pump current is, however, completely blocked by the open E-ring, water soluble MR antagonist K+ canrenoate and stoichometrically by cortisol.
Pathophysiology of hypertension during preeclampsia: linking placental ischemia with endothelial dysfunction Jeffrey S. Gilbert, Michael J. Ryan, Babbette B. LaMarca, Mona Sedeek, Sydney R. Murphy, and Joey P. Granger http://ajpheart.physiology.org/content/294/2/H541.full
"Studies from several laboratories indicate that chronic NO synthase inhibition in pregnant rats produces hypertension associated with peripheral and renal vasoconstriction, proteinuria, intrauterine growth restriction, and increased fetal morbidity (23, 43). We have previously reported similar cardiovascular perturbations exist in the NO inhibition and RUPP models, the latter illustrated in Fig. 2 (94).
Transient receptor potential melastatin 6 and 7 channels, magnesium transport, and vascular biology: implications in hypertension Rhian M. Touyz http://ajpheart.physiology.org/content/294/3/H1103.full
Aldosterone and end-organ damage Annis M. MARNEY and Nancy J. BROWN http://submit.clinsci.org/cs/113/0267/cs1130267.htm
, MR activation induces oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and subsequent fibrosis.
Hypertension. 2004 Feb;43(2):358-63. Epub 2004 Jan 12. Epoxy-keto derivative of linoleic acid stimulates aldosterone secretion. Goodfriend TL, Ball DL, Egan BM, Campbell WB, Nithipatikom K. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14718355?dopt=Abstract
Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Mar-Apr;52(5):401-9. Aldosterone: role in the cardiometabolic syndrome and resistant hypertension. Whaley-Connell A, Johnson MS, Sowers JR. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14718355?dopt=Abstract
Review article Role of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and inflammatory processes in the development and progression of diastolic dysfunction Sebastiano SCIARRETTA*, Francesco PANENI*, Francesca PALANO*, Diana CHIN*, Giuliano TOCCI*, Speranza RUBATTU*† and Massimo VOLPE*†
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002 Aug 1;22(8):1257-66. Vascular inflammation and the renin-angiotensin system. Brasier AR, Recinos A 3rd, Eledrisi MS. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12171785
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Wednesday, November 9, 2011
There are a lot of things that a woman find in a man attractive. Women are attracted to dominance, social status, confidence, ruggedness, height, a "strong" face, broad shoulders, muscles, body hair, large hands and feet, etc.
Social status is big for women. Women are also attracted to men who play "hard-to-get." And there are yet other features which women are attracted to. Women are attracted to men who are dominant. They are attracted to men who are leaders. They are attracted to men who are the "center of the attention."
Do you know why so many women are attracted to doctors, lawyers, businessmen, and cops? Because they have "authority." People look up to them, pay attention to them, listen to them, and learn from them. They are very attractive to women.
Fame is also attractive to women. Famous people such as actors, singers, and athletes are very attractive to women. Do you know why? Because fame is a sign of status. Imagine an actor who is in a movie. People watch the movie. People pay attention to the actor. It's like the actor being the "center of attention." Women are attracted to celebrities because they receive a lot of attention from people. It's a sign of authority.
I'm not saying that a man who tries too hard to *seek* attention is attractive. That's not. What I'm saying is the men who *receive* a lot of attention from others will be attractive.
Voice is a big thing that a woman will notice. Do you wonder why do those male singers get all the women? Do you wonder why a lot of women scream and cheer at concerts? Why do so many women have crushes on famous singers? Well, one factor is that those men have an attractive voice. Women are attracted to that. It's big. A deep, confident, and resonating voice is very attractive to women. That alone can make an average man very attractive to women.
But a lot of male singers have high-pitched, whiny voices. Why do they still attract a lot of women? Let's look at the positives. They're already famous, so their fame in itself will attract a lot of women. Besides fame, those men's voices are confident and resonating. They know how to tune the timing of their words, to make their voice sound confident. They sing loudly, which is also a sign of confidence. They use their diaphragm to make their voice resonate. A resonating voice is yet another sign of confidence.
Another thing which is attractive to male singers is "pre-selection." Pre-selection is a theory that a male will become more attractive if other women are also attracted to him. Famous male singers usually have millions of women going crazy for them, and that, in itself, would make them even more attractive to those women. And do you know why a lot of women are attracted to "taken" or "married" men? One of the reasons that those men are pre-selected by their girlfriends / wives.
There are other features which women find attractive. They are attracted to risk-taking men. Men who risk their lives are very attractive to women. A lot of women are attracted to firefighters, because they are risk-taking. Similarly, women are attracted to rugged, sporty men. And women are attracted to rich men, and men who dress like rich men. (i.e. Don't dress like a bum. Wear clothes which are tailored, clean, ironed, and fashionable.)
Body odor is huge. Pheromones are huge. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is huge factor in sex appeal, as well.
 There's a whole community out there about men wearing commercial pheromone colognes to attract women. (www.pheromonetalk.com) Those commercial pheromone colognes seem to work for men, though there isn't solid evidence. It's based on their grossly inaccurate observations. (i.e. "a woman looked at me; she must be attracted to me", "a woman smiled at me, she must be attracted to me", or "a woman chatted with me; she must be attracted to me." - not to mention placebo effects)
Saturday, June 11, 2011
People have different reasons to dress well, look well, and exercise. They have many reasons behind this. They are doing it to look more attractive than members of the same sex, like competition. Why do they do that? There are many reasons.
- They want to attract the opposite sex, by looking better than the competition, so they can have sex.
- They want to impress others of how they look better than the competition, so they could feel good about their attractiveness, not necessarily to have sex.
- They want to be looked as a respectable person, by dressing up, so people would look up to them.
- They want to look better than others to make their partners jealous of them, in attempt to secure their mates.
- Their habits, such as exercise and health eating, are intended to stay healthy rather than to compete with others.
- I'm not saying that all people fit in all those categories. There are people who don't care about how they look. There are people who don't fit in any of those criteria.
More importantly, however, it doesn't address the ultimate preference if such attraction were correct. It doesn't address if such preferences really reflect what the opposite sex really desires.
Let's analyze women's habits on being attractive, for instance. You will eventually notice patterns. You will notice that it's not too common for women to spend so much time shopping for expensive clothing. It's not uncommon to notice that women buy boots which cost $200, while never realizing that their money can be well spent on other items, which can be far more effective in making them attractive. Women spend thousands of dollars on designer-label clothing, thinking that their hundred-dollar Polo Ralph Lauren shirt, that they rarely wear, would be worthwhile. Women spend so much on their Brooks-Brothers pants which cost $500, and spend $2,000 on their Louis-Vuitton handbag which you think is a wasteful usage of their money.
You wonder, "Why are women spending so much money, on things which don't matter?" Why are women buying those expensive, designer-label products, when in reality, men don't care. Men really don't care about them. You know, women don't look more attractive in them, by just wearing clothing which just have a label on it. Women don't look more attractive, by wearing clothing which is made by some expensive brand, when you can buy cheaper products from other brands.
Why do women do this? Why do women spend so much? And why don't women use their money on more productive things, rather than those expensive clothing that don't do a thing for men?
Do you know why women spend much more on clothing than men do? Do you know why women shop more than women do? Women buy expensive handbags and shoes. Do you know what's the reason?
Let me tell you a fact. Let's talk about status symbols. Some clothing items function like a status symbol. Handbags are a status symbol. Shoes are another status symbol. Status symbols are very popular with women. Do you know why expensive clothing is popular with women? Do you know why women like to spend so much time and money on shopping?
Here is the answer: Women think that they are impressing men with those expensive shoes and handbags. Those are status symbols, and women think that having status symbols would make them look richer, thus more attractive to men.
But they are wrong. Women are actually misconceived of what men like. This misconception is the root of the problem. Women are wrong that if they look rich, they would become more attractive to men.
Let's look. It's a fact that men generally don't pay much attention to women's shoes or any accessories. There are article warning women about this:
For the most part, guys do not notice or care about shoes and accessories (for the first few days I had to remind James that he needed to choose these). So instead of wearing those killer heels that you think he will appreciate, just wear whatever you want. High heels, flats, sneakers, doesn't matter. On that some note, guys also don't notice a lot of the time-consuming beauty rituals you obsess over, so you can also ease up on the heavy primp time.
Do you know why it's the case? Why don't men pay much attention on women's shoes? The reason is they aren't affected by status symbols, such as shoes. They don't care to look at shoes as much as women do, because men aren't affected by status symbols. Status symbols do nothing to make a women look more attractive.
Women are misconceived of what men want women to wear. Women think that men are attracted to high-status or rich women. So they buy expensive clothing, designer-brand shoes, gold/silver jewelry, and expensive purses. While in fact, cheap clothing would just work the same.
Women don't need to buy expensive clothing. A simple form-fitting t-shirt or dress would work. Women don't need to buy expensive shoes or sneakers. Any cheap sneaker or shoe would do. Women don't need to buy those expensive silver bracelets to turn men on. A steel bracelet would just do the same.
Women are spending way too much money on things that men don't care about.
But the reverse not true. The case doesn't exist for women, but it does exist for men. It had been proven several times that women are attracted to rich men. Therefore, if a man buys status symbols, such as $500 shoes, then he would surely improve his chances with women.
Do you know why women are attracted to rich men? Well, look, just look at all those businessmen. They have all the power, they control more resources than almost all other men control, and get all the girls. Why is that? Why are business men attract so many women? Isn't because women have an instinct for gold-digging? No. No way.
Then what is it? Isn't because it's an evolutionary instinct. Say, the women want men who can provide resources, and those men who controls business can provide the most resources for woman and their offspring? Isn't that? Isn't because women like men with all the resources so he can feed any offspring that she produce?
Close--but no cigar. Women don't like men who are rich because they have lots of money to provide for any children that she has. Women are attracted to rich men, not because of their rich resources in itself, but because wealth in an indicator of power.
Let's look at a rich man. A rich man has a high-status job. Usually, he is in the managerial/executive positions. Women like those men, because they have power over other men. Power of their subordinates, power over telling their employees what they do. So what's going on now? It's the power that women desire, and not their money.
Also, those rich men also have "authority," which means that lots and lots of men look up to them. Respect their decisions. And never questions their choices that they make. This is a symbol of leadership, and dominance: confident about telling other people what to do, and the subordinates obey their orders.
While the poor man has to work for another person, the rich men has people working for them. While the poor man is subordinate, the rich man is dominant over their employees. It's like a dominance hierarchy. First you have poor people being obedient to their rich bosses. And then you have the rich bosses controlling their less wealthy employees. See what this resembles? This perfectly resembles the pecking order of our ancestors. With the poor men being submissive. And the rich men being dominant. And this, is the reason why women like rich men.
Women are not power-hungry whores. They are not gold-diggers. They are just sexually attracted to rich men and athletic men. Those are the men who are more likely to have the highest quality genes, during the Stone Age.
Here is a study which is performed on mating preferences between the sexes. The study made those conclusions:
Women did not perceive traits directly referring to a mate's material wealth as more desirable than men (traits such as capability to earn, success in job, or to have money). The differences are obtained concerning the traits more indirectly related to material prospects of a potential mate, and to his readiness to share resources as well.
The hypothesis formulated on the basis of the evolutionary psychology perspective received qualified support: results indicate that males tend to attach relatively greater weight to physical attractiveness of potential mates. Nevertheless, sex differences in the evaluation of strength and thinness could be interpreted as referring to male physical attractiveness, and therefore as evidence of women's specific emphasis on mate's physical attractiveness.
Source: Todosijevic, B., et al. (2003). Mate selection criteria: A trait desirability assessment study of sex differences in Serbia.
This is an essential read:
Evolutionists and art historians agree that fashion is all about status. In their dress, women follow fashion more than men do: Yet women seek clues to status, which change with fashion, and men seek clues to fertility, which do not. Men should not care less what women wear as long as they are smooth-skinned, slim, young, healthy, and generally nubile: Women should care greatly about what men wear because it tells them a good deal about their background, their wealth, their social status, even their ambitions. So why do women follow clothes fashions more avidly than men?
I can think of several answers to this question. First, the theory is simply wrong, and men prefer status symbols, whereas women prefer bodies. Perhaps, but that flies in the face of an awful lot of robust evidence: Second, women's fashion is not about status after all: Third, modern Western societies have been in a two-century aberration from which they are just emerging: In Regency England, Louis XIV's France, medieval Christendom, ancient Greece, or among modern Yanomamo, men followed fashion as avidly as women: Men wore bright colors, flowing robes, jewels, rich materials, gorgeous uniforms, and gleaming, decorated armor. The damsels that knights rescued were no more fashionably attired than their paramours. Only in Victorian times did the deadly uniformity of the black frock coat and its dismal modern descendant, the gray suit, infect the male sex, and only in this century have This suggests the fourth and most intriguing explanation, which is that women do care more about clothes and men do care less, but instead of influencing the other sex with their concerns, they influence their own. Each gender uses its own preferences to guide its own behavior. Experiments show that men think women care about physique much more than they actually do; women think men care about status cues much more than they actually do. So perhaps each sex simply acts out its instincts in the conviction that the other sex likes the same things as they do.
One experiment seems to support the idea that men and women mistake their own preferences for those of the opposite sex. April Fallon and Paul Rozin of the University of Pennsylvania showed four simple line drawings of male or female figures in swimsuits to nearly five hundred undergraduates. In each case the figures differed only in thinness: They asked the subjects to indicate their current figure, their ideal figure, the figure that they considered most attractive to the opposite sex, and the figure they thought most attractive in the opposite sex. Men ' s current, ideal, and attractive figures were almost identical; men are, on average, content with their figures. Women, as expected, were far heavier than what they thought most attractive to men, which was heavier still than their own ideal. But intriguingly, both sexes erred in their estimation of what the other sex most likes. Men think women like a heavier build than they do; women think men like women thinner than they do.
However, such confusions cannot be the whole explanation of why women follow fashion because it does not work for other features of attraction. Women are far more concerned with their own youth than men despite the fact that they mostly do not themselves seek younger partners.
And yet the notion that fashion is about status revolts us in a democratic age. We pretend instead that fashion is actually about showing off a body to best advantage. New fashions are worn by gorgeous models, and perhaps women buy them because they subconsciously credit the beauty to the dress and not the model. Surveys reveal what everybody knows: Men are attracted by women in revealing, tight, or skimpy clothing; women are less attracted by such clothing on men. Most female fashions are more or less explicitly designed to enhance beauty; for example, a gigantic crinoline made a waist look small simply by contrast. A woman is careful to choose clothes that "suit" her particular figure or hair color.
Source: Ridley, Matt (1993). The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature. Pages 301-313.
Here is another misconception that a "deep voice" on women is sexy:
Although Hughes and her team expected women would raise the pitch of their voices to sound more feminine, the opposite turned out to be true.
"There appears to be a common stereotype in our culture that deems a sexy female voice as one that sounds husky, breathy, and lower-pitched," she says."This suggests that the motivation to display a sexy/seductive female voice may conflict with the motivation to sound more feminine."
The findings will be published this fall in the Journal of Nonverbal Behavior.
Lowering one's voice to indicate attraction may be a learned behavior derived from cultural stereotypes that are perpetuated throughout the media, the researchers say. "When a woman naturally lowers her voice, it may be perceived as her attempt to sound more seductive or attractive, and therefore serves as a signal of her romantic interest," Hughes says.
I have another theory of why women like to sing:
Men who have a good voice turns women on. Women are attracted to male singers more than any other kind of musician because a resonating, confident voice is a huge turn on for them. The reverse is not true; you don't see many males idolizing female singers.
But women still believe that the other way around is true. They believe that men are roused by women who sing good too.
Have you noticed that women outnumber men in your school chorus? Have you noticed that a lot more women than men take singing lessens? Those women are in fact misconceived that men are aroused by women who can sing good. So women waste their money taking singing lessons, in their failed attempt to impress men.
Women think that they men care about status, even after men told them again and again that status doesn't matter.
I can think of many reasons for this:
1. Women are attracted to high-status men, so they think men are attracted to high-status women too.
2. Women tell other women that men like high-status women. The media reinforces the myth that men like high-status women.
3. Women will be too upset to find out that status doesn't matter. You see--a woman grows up and spent thousand of dollars on clothes, jewelry, and shoes. But she is soon told by her brother that buying expensive clothing won't make her more attractive. She will be upset by this if she is convinced. But usually, she will rationalize it away and believe that her expensive purchases are worthwhile. She's too afraid to admit to herself that all the money that she had spend on clothing is of no use. So she continues to believe that men find women in expensive clothing attractive. This is called post-purchase rationalization.